The leading introductory radiology text for medical students and others who are required to read and interpret common radiologic images, Learning Radiology, 4th Edition, stresses an easy-to-follow pattern recognition approach that teaches how to differentiate normal and abnormal images. Dr. William Herring’s clear, conversational writing style employs a touch of humor to explain what you need to know to effectively interpret medical images of all modalities. From the basics of patient safety, dose reduction, and radiation protection to the latest information on ultrasound, MRI, and CT, this concise, user-friendly text provides a complete, up-to-date introduction to radiology needed by today’s students.
Contents: فهرست فصول
1 Recognizing Anything: An Introduction to Imaging ModalitiesMany Shades of Gray Conventional Radiography (Plain Films) The Five Basic Densities Computed Tomography Ultrasound Magnetic Resonance Imaging Fluoroscopy Nuclear Medicine Conventions Used in This Book2 Recognizing a Technically Adequate Chest RadiographEvaluating the Chest Radiograph for Technical Adequacy Penetration Inspiration Rotation Magnification Angulation3 Recognizing Normal Pulmonary AnatomyThe Normal Frontal Chest Radiograph The Normal Lateral Chest Radiograph Normal CT Anatomy of the Chest4 Recognizing Normal Cardiac AnatomyEvaluating the Heart on Chest Radiographs General Principles Evaluating the Heart on Cardiac CT Uses of Cardiac CT Cardiac MRI5 Recognizing Airspace Versus Interstitial Lung DiseaseClassifying Parenchymal Lung Disease Characteristics of Airspace Disease Some Causes of Airspace Disease Characteristics of Interstitial Lung Disease Some Causes of Interstitial Lung Disease6 Recognizing the Causes of an Opacified HemithoraxAtelectasis of the Entire Lung Massive Pleural Effusion Pneumonia of an Entire Lung Postpneumonectomy7 Recognizing AtelectasisWhat Is Atelectasis? Signs of Atelectasis Types of Atelectasis How Atelectasis Resolves8 Recognizing a Pleural EffusionNormal Anatomy and Physiology of the Pleural Space Modalities for Detecting Pleural Effusions Causes of Pleural Effusions Types of Pleural Effusions Side-Specificity of Pleural Effusions Recognizing the Different Appearances of Pleural Effusions9 Recognizing PneumoniaGeneral Considerations General Characteristics of Pneumonia Patterns of Pneumonia Lobar Pneumonia Segmental Pneumonia (Bronchopneumonia) Interstitial Pneumonia Round Pneumonia Cavitary Pneumonia Aspiration Localizing Pneumonia How Pneumonia Resolves10 Recognizing the Correct Placement of Lines and Tubes and Their Potential Complications: Critical Care RadiologyEndotracheal and Tracheostomy Tubes Intravascular Catheters Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters: PICC Multiple Lumen Catheters: "Quinton Catheters," Hemodialysis Catheters Pleural Drainage Tubes (Chest Tubes, Thoracotomy Tubes) Cardiac Devices: Pacemaker, Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator (AICD), Intra-aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators (AICD) Intra-aortic Counterpulsation Balloon Pump (IABP or IACB) GI Tubes and Lines: Nasogastric Tubes, Feeding Tubes11 Recognizing Other Diseases of the ChestMediastinal Masses Anterior Mediastinum Middle Mediastinal Masses Posterior Mediastinal Masses Solitary Nodule/Mass in the Lung Bronchogenic Carcinoma Metastatic Neoplasms in the Lung Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease (PE) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Bullae, Cysts, and Cavities Bronchiectasis12 Recognizing Adult Heart DiseaseRecognizing an Enlarged Cardiac Silhouette Recognizing Common Cardiac Diseases13 Recognizing the Normal Abdomen and Pelvis: Conventional RadiographsRecognizing the Normal Abdomen: What to Look For Acute Abdominal Series: The Views and What They Show Recognizing the Normal Abdomen: Extraluminal Air Recognizing the Normal Abdomen: Calcifi cations Recognizing the Normal Abdomen: Organomegaly14 Recognizing the Normal Abdomen and Pelvis on Computed TomographyIntroduction to Abdominal and Pelvic CT Intravenous Contrast in CT Scanning Oral Contrast in CT Scanning Abdominal CT: General Considerations Abdominal CT: By Organ15 Recognizing Bowel Obstruction and IleusAbnormal Gas Patterns Laws of the Gut Functional Ileus: Localized-Sentinel Loops Functional Ileus: Generalized Adynamic Ileus Mechanical Obstruction: Small Bowel Obstruction Mechanical Obstruction: Large Bowel Obstruction (LBO) Volvulus of the Colon Intestinal Pseudoobstruction (Ogilvie Syndrome)16 Recognizing Extraluminal Gas in the AbdomenSigns of Free Intraperitoneal Air Signs of Extraperitoneal Air (Retroperitoneal Air) Signs of Air in the Bowel Wall Signs of Air in the Biliary System17 Recognizing Abnormal Calcifications and Their CausesPatterns of Calcification Location of Calcification18 Recognizing Gastrointestinal, Hepatobiliary, and Urinary Tract AbnormalitiesBarium Studies of the Gastrointestinal Tract Esophagus Stomach and Duodenum Small and Large Bowel Large Bowel Pancreas Hepatobiliary Abnormalities Biliary System Urinary Tract Pelvis Urinary Bladder Adenopathy19 Ultrasonography: Understanding the Principles and Its Uses in Abdominal and Pelvic ImagingHow it Works Types of Ultrasound Adverse Effects or Safety Issues Medical Uses of Ultrasonography Female Pelvic Organs Pregnancy Abdominal Hernias Appendicitis Ascites Musculoskeletal System Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound20 Vascular, Pediatric, and Point-of-Care UltrasoundVascular Ultrasound Arterial Stenosis Pseudoaneurysm Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Pediatrics Point-of-Care Ultrasound21 Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Understanding the Principles and Recognizing the BasicsHow MRI Works Hardware That Makes Up an MRI Scanner What Happens Once Scanning Begins How Can You Identify a T1-Weighted or T2-Weighted Image? MRI Contrast: General Considerations MRI Safety Issues Diagnostic Applications of MRI22 Recognizing Nontraumatic Abnormalities of the Appendicular Skeleton Including ArthritisConventional Radiography, CT, and MRI in Bone Imaging Normal Bone and Joint Anatomy Diseases That Affect Bone Density Diseases That Increase Bone Density Diseases That Decrease Bone Density Diseases of the Joints: An Approach to Arthritis23 Recognizing Nontraumatic Abnormalities of the SpineThe Normal Spine Normal MRI Appearance of the Spine Back Pain24 Recognizing Trauma to the Bony SkeletonRecognizing an Acute Fracture Recognizing Dislocations and Subluxations Describing Fractures Avulsion Fractures Salter-Harris Fractures: Epiphyseal Plate Fractures in Children Child Abuse Stress Fractures Common Fracture Eponyms Some Subtle Fractures or Dislocations Fracture Healing Spinal Trauma Pathologic Fractures25 Recognizing the Imaging Findings of Trauma to the ChestChest Trauma Chest Wall Trauma Pleural Abnormalities: Pneumothorax Imaging Modalities Used to Diagnose a Pneumothorax Trauma-Related Parenchymal Lung Abnormalities Aortic Trauma26 Recognizing the Imaging Findings of Trauma to the Abdomen and PelvisAbdominal Trauma Pelvic Trauma Less Common Abdominal Injuries27 Recognizing Some Common Causes of Intracranial PathologyNormal Anatomy MRI and the Brain Head Trauma Intracranial Hemorrhage Diffuse Axonal Injury Increased Intracranial Pressure Stroke Ruptured Aneurysms Hydrocephalus Cerebral Atrophy Brain Tumors Other Diseases Terminology28 Recognizing Pediatric DiseasesDiseases Discussed in This Chapter Newborn Respiratory Distress Childhood Lung Disease Soft Tissues of the Neck Ingested Foreign Bodies Other Diseases Salter-Harris Fractures: Epiphyseal Plate Fractures in Children Child Abuse Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Esophageal Atresia With/Without Tracheoesophageal Fistula (TEF)29 Using Image-Guided Interventions in Diagnosis and Treatment: Interventional RadiologyArterial Access and Arteriography Central Venous Access: Image-Guided Venous Access Pulmonary Embolism: Thrombolysis Pulmonary Embolism: Inferior Vena Caval (IVC) Filter Placement Pulmonary Nodule: Image-Guided Biopsy Hepatic/Renal/Pulmonary Tumor: Thermal Ablation Portal Hypertension: Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Abscess: Percutaneous Abscess Aspiration and Drain Placement Gastrointestinal (GI) Bleeding: Arteriography and Embolization Obstructive Uropathy: Percutaneous Nephrostomy (PCN)/Nephroureterostomy (PCNU) Aortic Aneurysm: Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) Uterine Fibroids: Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE) Acute Ischemic Stroke: Mechanical Thrombectomy30 Recognizing the Findings in Breast ImagingBreast Imaging Modalities: Overview Mammography: Screening Versus Diagnostic Fundamental Mammography Findings Ultrasound Magnetic Resonance Imaging Management of Breast Abnormalities Special ConsiderationsBibliographyChapter 1 Quiz AnswersOnline-Only AppendixesA. Self-Assessment Quizzes B. Normal Imaging Anatomy Quizzes C. Unknown Cases D. The ABCs of Heart Disease E. Radiation Dose and Safety F. What to Order When G. Chapters 1 and 18 Glossaries (General Terminology and GI Imaging Terminology) H. Nuclear Medicine: Understanding the Principles and Recognizing the Basics