Microbiology For Dummies (9781119544425) was previously published as Microbiology For Dummies (9781118871188). While this version features a new Dummies cover and design, the content is the same as the prior release and should not be considered a new or updated product.
Microbiology is the study of life itself, down to the smallest particle
Microbiology is a fascinating field that explores life down to the tiniest level. Did you know that your body contains more bacteria cells than human cells? It's true. Microbes are essential to our everyday lives, from the food we eat to the very internal systems that keep us alive. These microbes include bacteria, algae, fungi, viruses, and nematodes. Without microbes, life on Earth would not survive. It's amazing to think that all life is so dependent on these microscopic creatures, but their impact on our future is even more astonishing. Microbes are the tools that allow us to engineer hardier crops, create better medicines, and fuel our technology in sustainable ways. Microbes may just help us save the world.
Microbiology For Dummies is your guide to understanding the fundamentals of this enormously-encompassing field. Whether your career plans include microbiology or another science or health specialty, you need to understand life at the cellular level before you can understand anything on the macro scale.
You need to know how cells work, how they get nutrients, and how they die. You need to know the effects different microbes have on different systems, and how certain microbes are integral to ecosystem health. Microbes are literally the foundation of all life, and they are everywhere. Microbiology For Dummies will help you understand them, appreciate them, and use them.
Contents: فهرست فصول
Introduction 1About This Book 1Foolish Assumptions 2Icons Used in This Book 2Beyond the Book 3Where to Go from Here 3Part 1: Getting Started With Microbiology 5Chapter 1: Microbiology and You 7Why Microbiology? 7Introducing the Microorganisms 8Deconstructing Microbiology 10Chapter 2: Microbiology: The Young Science 11Before Microbiology: Misconceptions and Superstitions 12Discovering Microorganisms 12Debunking the myth of spontaneous generation 13Improving medicine, from surgery to antibiotics and more 14Looking at microbiology outside the human body 16The Future of Microbiology 16Exciting frontiers 17Remaining challenges 18Chapter 3: Microbes: They're Everywhere and They Can Do Everything 21Habitat Diversity 23Metabolic Diversity 24Getting energy 25Capturing carbon 25Making enzymes 26Secondary metabolism 26The Intersection of Microbes and Everyone Else 27Part 2: Balancing the Dynamics Of Microbial Life 29Chapter 4: Understanding Cell Structure and Function 31Seeing the Shapes of Cells 31Life on a Minute Scale: Considering the Size of Prokaryotes 33The Cell: An Overview 34Scaling the Outer Membrane and Cell Walls 35Examining the outer membrane 35Exploring the cell wall 37Other Important Cell Structures 41Divining Cell Division 43Tackling Transport Systems 44Coasting with the current: Passive transport 45Upstream paddle: Active transport 46Keeping things clean with efflux pumps 46Getting Around with Locomotion 47Chapter 5: Making Sense of Metabolism 49Converting with Enzymes 49In Charge of Energy: Oxidation and Reduction 51Donating and accepting electrons 52Bargaining with energy-rich compounds 54Storing energy for later 55Breaking Down Catabolism 56Digesting glycolysis 56Stepping along with respiration and electron carriers 57Moving with the proton motive force 59Turning the citric acid cycle 60Stacking Up with Anabolism 61Creating amino acids and nucleic acids 62Making sugars and polysaccharides 63Putting together fatty acids and lipids 65Chapter 6: Getting the Gist of Microbial Genetics 67Organizing Genetic Material 68DNA: The recipe for life 68Perfect plasmids 70Doubling down with DNA replication 71Assembling the Cellular Machinery 75Making messenger RNA 75Remembering other types of RNA 77Synthesizing protein 78Making the Right Amount: Regulation 80Turning the tap on and off: DNA regulation 81Regulating protein function 83Changing the Genetic Code 83Slight adjustments 83Major rearrangements 85Chapter 7: Measuring Microbial Growth 89Getting Growth Requirements Right 89Physical requirements 90Chemical requirements 91Culturing microbes in the lab 92Observing Microbes 94Counting small things 95Seeing morphology 97Calculating Cell Division and Population Growth 98Dividing cells 99Following growth phases 100Inhibiting Microbial Growth 101Physical methods 101Disinfectants 102Part 3: Sorting Out Microbial Diversity 103Chapter 8: Appreciating Microbial Ancestry 105Where Did Microbes Come From? 105Tracing the origins of life 106Diversifying early prokaryotes 107The impact of prokaryotes on the early earth 107Hitching a ride: Endosymbiosis 108Understanding Evolution 111Studying Evolution 113Choosing marker genes 113Seeing the direction of gene transfer in prokaryotes 114Classifying and Naming Microbes 115Climbing the Tree of Life 117Chapter 9: Harnessing Energy, Fixing Carbon 119Forging Ahead with Autotrophic Processes 120Fixing carbon 120Using the Energy in Light 124Harvesting light: Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls 125Helping photosynthesis out: Carotenoids and phycobilins 127Generating oxygen (or not): Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis 128Getting Energy from the Elements: Chemolithotrophy 133Harnessing hydrogen 134Securing electrons from sulfur 134Pumping iron 135Oxidizing nitrate and ammonia 136Chapter 10: Comparing Respiration and Fermentation 139Lifestyles of the Rich and Facultative 139Seeing the Big Picture 141Digging into Respiration 144Spinning the citric acid cycle 144Stepping down the electron transport chain 146Respiring anaerobically 147Figuring Out Fermentation 150Chapter 11: Uncovering a Variety of Habitats 155Defining a Habitat 156Understanding Nutrient Cycles 157Carbon cycling 157Nitrogen cycling 160Sulfur cycling 162Phosphorous cycles in the ocean 162Microbes Socializing in Communities 163Using quorum sensing to communicate 163Living in biofilms 163Exploring microbial mats 165Discovering Microbes in Aquatic and Terrestrial Habitats 165Thriving in water 166Swarming soils 167Getting Along with Plants and Animals 168Living with plants 169Living with animals 171Living with insects 172Living with ocean creatures 172Tolerating Extreme Locations 173Detecting Microbes in Unexpected Places 174Part 4: Meeting the Microbes 175Chapter 12: Meet the Prokaryotes 177Getting to Know the Bacteria 178The Gram-negative bacteria: Proteobacteria 178More Gram-negative bacteria 182The Gram-positive bacteria 186Acquainting Yourself with the Archaea 188Some like it scalding: Extreme thermophiles 190Going beyond acidic: Extreme acidophiles 191Super salty: Extreme halophiles 192Not terribly extreme Archaea 193Chapter 13: Say Hello to the Eukaryotes 195Fun with Fungi 196Figuring out fungal physiology 196Itemizing fungal diversity 199Interacting with plant roots 201Ask us about the Ascomycetes 202Mushrooms: Basidiomycetes 203Perusing the Protists 204Making us sick: Apicoplexans 205Making plants sick: Oomycetes 207Chasing amoeba and ciliates 207Encountering the algae 210Chapter 14: Examining the Vastness of Viruses 215Hijacking Cells 215Frugal viral structure 216Simplifying viral function 217Making Heads or Tails of Bacteriophage 219Lytic phage 219Temperate phage 220Transposable phage 222Discussing Viruses of Eukaryotes 224Infecting animal cells 224Following plant viruses 227How Host Cells Fight Back 229Restriction enzymes 229CRISPR 230Interfering with RNA viruses: RNAi 232Part 5: Seeing the Impact Of Microbes 233Chapter 15: Understanding Microbes in Human Health and Disease 235Clarifying the Host Immune Response 236Putting up barriers to infection 236Raising a red flag with inflammation 237Holding down the fort with innate immunity 237Sending out the troops for adaptive immunity 238Antibodies in action 240Relying on Antimicrobials for Treating Disease 243Fundamental features of antibiotics 244Targets of destruction 245Unraveling microbial drug resistance 247Discovering new antibiotics 249Searching Out Superbugs 250Staying ahead of vancomycin-resistant enterococci 251Battling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 251Outcompeting Clostridium difficile 253Pressure from extended-spectrum beta-lactamases 253Knowing the Benefits of Prebiotics and Probiotics 254Attacking Viruses with Antiviral Drugs 255Chapter 16: Putting Microbes to Work: Biotechnology 257Using Recombinant DNA Technology 258Making the insert 258Employing plasmids 261Cutting with restriction enzymes 262Getting microbes to take up DNA 264Using promoters to drive expression 267Making use of expression vectors 267Properly folding proteins 268Being mindful of metabolic load 269Making long, multi-gene constructs 269Providing Therapies 272Improving antibiotics 272Developing vaccines 272Using Microbes Industrially 273Protecting plants with microbial insecticides 274Making biofuels 275Bioleaching metals 276Cleaning up with microbes 276Chapter 17: Fighting Microbial Diseases 279Protecting Public Health: Epidemiology 279Tracking diseases 280Investigating outbreaks 280Identifying a Microbial Pathogen 283Characterizing morphology 283Using biochemical tests 284Typing strains with phage 286Using serology 287Testing antibiotic susceptibility 288Understanding Vaccines 289Understanding how vaccines work 290Ranking the types of vaccines 291Part 6: New Frontiers in Microbiology 293Chapter 18: Teasing Apart Communities 295Studying Microbial Communities 295Borrowing from ecology 296Seeing what sets microbial communities apart from plants and animals 296Observing Communities: Microbial Ecology Methods 297Selecting something special with enrichment 297Seeing cells through lenses 298Measuring microbial activity 299Identifying species using marker genes 300Getting the Hang of Microbial Genetics and Systematics 301Sequencing whole genomes 301Using metagenomics to study microbial communities 302Reading microbial transcriptomics 303Figuring out proteomics and metabolomics 304Looking for Microbial Dark Matter 306Chapter 19: Synthesizing Life 307Regulating Genes: The lac Operon 308Using a good natural system 308Improving a good system 310Designing Genetic Networks 312Switching from one state to another 313Oscillating between states 314Keeping signals short 315The Synthetic Biologist's Toolbox 315Making it modular 315Participating in the iGEM competition 316Part 7: The Part of Tens 319Chapter 20: Ten (or So) Diseases Caused by Microbes 321Ebola 322Anthrax 322Influenza 323Tuberculosis 324HIV 324Cholera 325Smallpox 325Primary Amoebic Menigoencephalitis 326The Unknown 327Chapter 21: Ten Great Uses for Microbes 329Making Delicious Foods 329Growing Legumes 330Brewing Beer, Liquor, and Wine 330Killing Insect Pests 331Treating Sewage 331Contributing to Medicine 332Setting Up Your Aquarium 332Making and Breaking Down Biodegradable Plastics 333Turning Over Compostable Waste 333Maintaining a Balance 334Chapter 22: Ten Great Uses for Microbiology 335Medical Care: Keeping People Healthy 335Dental Care: Keeping Those Pearly Whites Shining Bright 336Veterinary Care: Helping Fido and Fluffy to Feel Their Best 337Monitoring the Environment 338Making Plants Happy 339Keeping Fish Swimming Strong 339Producing Food, Wine, and Beer 340Science Hacking 341Looking for Microbes in Clean Rooms 341Producing Pharmaceuticals 342Index 343