The Voice of Clinical Reason
A Doody’s Core Title for 2022! Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine is the world’s most trusted clinical medicine text―and a superb resource for learning the art and science of clinical reasoning. Recognized by healthcare professionals worldwide as the leading authority on applied pathophysiology and clinical medicine, Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine provides the informational foundation you need for the best patient care possible. This new edition is fully updated with timely new chapters and essential updates across the spectrum of internal medicine.
Written and edited by the world’s top experts in their respective fields, this landmark guide provides comprehensive, accurate, and essential coverage of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.
Harrison’s is world-renowned as the most authoritative source for:
• Clear, concise schemas that facilitate the generation of differential diagnoses to reason efficiently through complex real world clinical cases• The physiologic and etiologic basis of signs and symptoms, which are covered through a wealth of unsurpassed expert guidance and linked to the disease-specific chapters that follow• Updated clinical trial results and recommended guidelines• Excellent and extensive visual support, including radiographs, clinical photos, schematics, and high-quality drawings• Coverage of both therapeutic approaches and specific treatment regimens• Practical clinical decision trees and algorithms• Organ/system-specific sections, with clinically relevant pathophysiology and practical clinical advice on the approach to the patient, strategies towards building a differential diagnosis, outstanding clinical algorithms and diagnostic schema, a wealth of clinical images and diagrams, current clinical guidelines, and general and specific approaches to therapy
Harrison’s remains the most trusted resource in a world influenced by endless sources of medical information. The most timely and comprehensive updates from the world’s top experts are featured in the 21st edition:
• Current coverage of the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, from COVID to dementia to sepsis to multiple sclerosis to lung cancer• Updated content that reflects new approved therapeutics and new practice-changing guidelines and evidence summaries• More than 1000 clinical, pathological, and radiographic photographs, diagnostic and therapeutic decision trees, and clear schematics and diagrams describing pathophysiologic processes• Numerous atlases featuring curated collections of important visual aspects of diagnosis and management• Updated and time-saving curation and synthesis of established and new medical literature and studies• Clinically relevant coverage of disease mechanics and pathophysiology, and related therapeutic mechanisms
Contents: فهرست فصول
PART 1 The Profession of Medicine1 The Practice of Medicine2 Promoting Good Health3 Vaccine Opposition and Hesitancy4 Decision-Making in Clinical Medicine5 Precision Medicine and Clinical Care6 Screening and Prevention of Disease7 Global Diversity of Health System Financing and Delivery8 The Safety and Quality of Health Care9 Diagnosis: Reducing Errors and Improving Quality10 Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care11 Ethical Issues in Clinical Medicine12 Palliative and End-of-Life CarePART 2 Cardinal Manifestations and Presentation of DiseasesSECTION 1 Pain13 Pain: Pathophysiology and Management14 Chest Discomfort15 Abdominal Pain16 Headache17 Back and Neck PainSECTION 2 Alterations in Body Temperature18 Fever19 Fever and Rash20 Fever of Unknown OriginSECTION 3 Nervous System Dysfunction21 Syncope22 Dizziness and Vertigo23 Fatigue24 Neurologic Causes of Weakness and Paralysis25 Numbness, Tingling, and Sensory Loss26 Gait Disorders, Imbalance, and Falls27 Confusion and Delirium28 Coma29 Dementia30 Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Cognitive Disorders31 Sleep DisordersSECTION 4 Disorders of Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat32 Disorders of the Eye33 Disorders of Smell and Taste34 Disorders of Hearing35 Upper Respiratory Symptoms, Including Earache, Sinus Symptoms, and Sore Throat36 Oral Manifestations of DiseaseSECTION 5 Alterations in Circulatory and Respiratory Functions37 Dyspnea38 Cough39 Hemoptysis40 Hypoxia and Cyanosis41 Edema42 Approach to the Patient with a Heart Murmur43 PalpitationsSECTION 6 Alterations in Gastrointestinal Function44 Dysphagia45 Nausea, Vomiting, and Indigestion46 Diarrhea and Constipation47 Unintentional Weight Loss48 Gastrointestinal Bleeding49 Jaundice50 Abdominal Swelling and AscitesSECTION 7 Alterations in Renal and Urinary Tract Function51 Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome52 Azotemia and Urinary Abnormalities53 Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances54 Hypercalcemia and Hypocalcemia55 Acidosis and AlkalosisSECTION 8 Alterations in the Skin56 Approach to the Patient with a Skin Disorder57 Eczema, Psoriasis, Cutaneous Infections, Acne, and Other Common Skin Disorders58 Skin Manifestations of Internal Disease59 Immunologically Mediated Skin Diseases60 Cutaneous Drug Reactions61 Photosensitivity and Other Reactions to SunlightSECTION 9 Hematologic Alterations62 Interpreting Peripheral Blood Smears63 Anemia and Polycythemia64 Disorders of Granulocytes and Monocytes65 Bleeding and Thrombosis66 Enlargement of Lymph Nodes and SpleenPART 3 Pharmacology67 Principles of Clinical Pharmacology68 PharmacogenomicsPART 4 Oncology and HematologySECTION 1 Neoplastic Disorders69 Approach to the Patient with Cancer70 Prevention and Early Detection of Cancer71 Cancer Genetics72 Cancer Cell Biology73 Principles of Cancer Treatment74 Infections in Patients with Cancer75 Oncologic Emergencies76 Cancer of the Skin77 Head and Neck Cancer78 Neoplasms of the Lung79 Breast Cancer80 Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers81 Lower Gastrointestinal Cancers82 Tumors of the Liver and Biliary Tree83 Pancreatic Cancer84 Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors85 Renal Cell Carcinoma86 Cancer of the Bladder and Urinary Tract87 Benign and Malignant Diseases of the Prostate88 Testicular Cancer89 Gynecologic Malignancies90 Primary and Metastatic Tumors of the Nervous System91 Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcomas and Bone Metastases92 Carcinoma of Unknown Primary93 Paraneoplastic Syndromes: Endocrinologic/Hematologic94 Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes and Autoimmune Encephalitis95 Cancer Survivorship and the Long-Term Impact of Cancer and Its TreatmentSECTION 2 Hematopoietic Disorders96 Hematopoietic Stem Cells97 Iron Deficiency and Other Hypoproliferative Anemias98 Disorders of Hemoglobin99 Megaloblastic Anemias100 Hemolytic Anemias101 Anemia Due to Acute Blood Loss102 Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Including Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplasia103 Polycythemia Vera and Other Myeloproliferative Neoplasms104 Acute Myeloid Leukemia105 Chronic Myeloid Leukemia106 Acute Lymphoid Leukemia107 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia108 Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma109 Hodgkin’s Lymphoma110 Less Common Lymphoid and Myeloid Malignancies111 Plasma Cell Disorders112 Amyloidosis113 Transfusion Therapy and Biology114 Hematopoietic Cell TransplantationSECTION 3 Disorders of Hemostasis115 Disorders of Platelets and Vessel Wall116 Coagulation Disorders117 Arterial and Venous Thrombosis118 Antiplatelet, Anticoagulant, and Fibrinolytic DrugsPART 5 Infectious DiseasesSECTION 1 Basic Considerations in Infectious Diseases119 Approach to the Patient with an Infectious Disease120 Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis121 Microbial Genomics and Infectious Disease122 Approach to the Acutely Ill Infected Febrile Patient123 Immunization Principles and Vaccine Use124 Health Recommendations for International Travel125 Climate Change and Infectious DiseaseSECTION 2 Clinical Syndromes: Community-Acquired Infections126 Pneumonia127 Lung Abscess128 Infective Endocarditis129 Infections of the Skin, Muscles, and Soft Tissues130 Infectious Arthritis131 Osteomyelitis132 Intraabdominal Infections and Abscesses133 Acute Infectious Diarrheal Diseases and Bacterial Food Poisoning134 Clostridioides difficile Infection, Including Pseudomembranous Colitis135 Urinary Tract Infections, Pyelonephritis, and Prostatitis136 Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and Clinical Approach137 Encephalitis138 Acute Meningitis139 Chronic and Recurrent Meningitis140 Brain Abscess and Empyema141 Infectious Complications of BitesSECTION 3 Clinical Syndromes: Health Care–Associated Infections142 Infections Acquired in Health Care Facilities143 Infections in Transplant RecipientsSECTION 4 Therapy for Bacterial Diseases144 Treatment and Prophylaxis of Bacterial Infections145 Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial AgentsSECTION 5 Diseases Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria146 Pneumococcal Infections147 Staphylococcal Infections148 Streptococcal Infections149 Enterococcal Infections150 Diphtheria and Other Corynebacterial Infections151 Listeria monocytogenes Infections152 Tetanus153 Botulism154 Gas Gangrene and Other Clostridial InfectionsSECTION 6 Diseases Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria155 Meningococcal Infections156 Gonococcal Infections157 Haemophilus and Moraxella Infections158 Infections Due to the HACEK Group and Miscellaneous Gram-Negative Bacteria159 Legionella Infections160 Pertussis and Other Bordetella Infections161 Diseases Caused by Gram-Negative Enteric Bacilli162 Acinetobacter Infections163 Helicobacter pylori Infections164 Infections Due to Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas Species165 Salmonellosis166 Shigellosis167 Infections Due to Campylobacter and Related Organisms168 Cholera and Other Vibrioses169 Brucellosis170 Tularemia171 Plague and Other Yersinia Infections172 Bartonella Infections, Including Cat-Scratch Disease173 DonovanosisSECTION 7 Miscellaneous Bacterial Infections174 Nocardiosis175 Actinomycosis176 Whipple’s Disease177 Infections Due to Mixed Anaerobic OrganismsSECTION 8 Mycobacterial Diseases178 Tuberculosis179 Leprosy180 Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections181 Antimycobacterial AgentsSECTION 9 Spirochetal Diseases182 Syphilis183 Endemic Treponematoses184 Leptospirosis185 Relapsing Fever and Borrelia miyamotoi Disease186 Lyme BorreliosisSECTION 10 Diseases Caused by Rickettsiae, Mycoplasmas, and Chlamydiae187 Rickettsial Diseases188 Infections Due to Mycoplasmas189 Chlamydial InfectionsSECTION 11 Viral Diseases: General Considerations190 Principles of Medical Virology191 Antiviral Chemotherapy, Excluding Antiretroviral DrugsSECTION 12 Infections Due to DNA Viruses192 Herpes Simplex Virus Infections193 Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections194 Epstein-Barr Virus Infections, Including Infectious Mononucleosis195 Cytomegalovirus and Human Herpesvirus Types 6, 7, and 8196 Molluscum Contagiosum, Monkeypox, and Other Poxvirus Infections197 Parvovirus Infections198 Human Papillomavirus InfectionsSECTION 13 Infections Due to DNA and RNA Respiratory Viruses199 Common Viral Respiratory Infections, Including COVID-19200 InfluenzaSECTION 14 Infections Due to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Other Human Retroviruses201 The Human Retroviruses202 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: AIDS and Related DisordersSECTION 15 Infections Due to RNA Viruses203 Viral Gastroenteritis204 Enterovirus, Parechovirus, and Reovirus Infections205 Measles (Rubeola)206 Rubella (German Measles)207 Mumps208 Rabies and Other Rhabdovirus Infections209 Arthropod-Borne and Rodent-Borne Virus Infections210 Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus InfectionsSECTION 16 Fungal Infections211 Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Fungal Infections212 Histoplasmosis213 Coccidioidomycosis214 Blastomycosis215 Cryptococcosis216 Candidiasis217 Aspergillosis218 Mucormycosis219 Less Common Systemic Mycoses and Superficial Mycoses220 Pneumocystis InfectionsSECTION 17 Protozoal and Helminthic Infections: General Considerations221 Introduction to Parasitic Infections222 Agents Used to Treat Parasitic InfectionsSECTION 18 Protozoal Infections223 Amebiasis and Infection with Free-Living Amebae224 Malaria225 Babesiosis226 Leishmaniasis227 Chagas Disease and African Trypanosomiasis228 Toxoplasma Infections229 Protozoal Intestinal Infections and TrichomoniasisSECTION 19 Helminthic Infections230 Introduction to Helminthic Infections231 Trichinellosis and Other Tissue Nematode Infections232 Intestinal Nematode Infections233 Filarial and Related Infections234 Schistosomiasis and Other Trematode Infections235 Cestode InfectionsPART 6 Disorders of the Cardiovascular SystemSECTION 1 Introduction to Cardiovascular Disorders236 Approach to the Patient with Possible Cardiovascular Disease237 Basic Biology of the Cardiovascular System238 Epidemiology of Cardiovascular DiseaseSECTION 2 Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disorders239 Physical Examination of the Cardiovascular System240 Electrocardiography241 Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging: Echocardiography, Nuclear Cardiology, and Magnetic Resonance/Computed Tomography Imaging242 Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary AngiographySECTION 3 Disorders of Rhythm243 Principles of Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology244 The Bradyarrhythmias: Disorders of the Sinoatrial Node245 The Bradyarrhythmias: Disorders of the Atrioventricular Node246 Approach to Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias247 Physiologic and Nonphysiologic Sinus Tachycardia248 Focal Atrial Tachycardia249 Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardias250 Common Atrial Flutter and Macroreentrant and Multifocal Atrial Tachycardias251 Atrial Fibrillation252 Approach to Ventricular Arrhythmias253 Premature Ventricular Contractions, Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia, and Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm254 Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia255 Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation256 Electrical Storm and Incessant Ventricular TachycardiaSECTION 4 Disorders of the Heart, Muscles, Valves, and Pericardium257 Heart Failure: Pathophysiology and Diagnosis258 Heart Failure: Management259 Cardiomyopathy and Myocarditis260 Cardiac Transplantation and Prolonged Assisted Circulation261 Aortic Stenosis262 Aortic Regurgitation263 Mitral Stenosis264 Mitral Regurgitation265 Mitral Valve Prolapse266 Tricuspid Valve Disease267 Pulmonic Valve Disease268 Multiple and Mixed Valvular Heart Disease269 Congenital Heart Disease in the Adult270 Pericardial Disease271 Atrial Myxoma and Other Cardiac Tumors272 Cardiac TraumaSECTION 5 Coronary and Peripheral Vascular Disease273 Ischemic Heart Disease274 Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina)275 ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction276 Percutaneous Coronary Interventions and Other Interventional Procedures277 Hypertension278 Renovascular Disease279 Deep-Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism280 Diseases of the Aorta281 Arterial Diseases of the Extremities282 Chronic Venous Disease and Lymphedema283 Pulmonary HypertensionPART 7 Disorders of the Respiratory SystemSECTION 1 Diagnosis of Respiratory Disorders284 Approach to the Patient with Disease of the Respiratory System285 Disturbances of Respiratory Function286 Diagnostic Procedures in Respiratory DiseaseSECTION 2 Diseases of the Respiratory System287 Asthma288 Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia289 Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease290 Bronchiectasis291 Cystic Fibrosis292 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease293 Interstitial Lung Disease294 Disorders of the Pleura295 Disorders of the Mediastinum296 Disorders of Ventilation297 Sleep Apnea298 Lung Transplantation299 Interventional Pulmonary MedicinePART 8 Critical Care MedicineSECTION 1 Respiratory Critical Care300 Approach to the Patient with Critical Illness301 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome302 Mechanical Ventilatory SupportSECTION 2 Shock and Cardiac Arrest303 Approach to the Patient with Shock304 Sepsis and Septic Shock305 Cardiogenic Shock and Pulmonary Edema306 Cardiovascular Collapse, Cardiac Arrest, and Sudden Cardiac DeathSECTION 3 Neurologic Critical Care307 Nervous System Disorders in Critical CarePart 9 Disorders of the Kidney and Urinary Tract308 Approach to the Patient with Renal Disease or Urinary Tract Disease309 Cell Biology and Physiology of the Kidney310 Acute Kidney Injury311 Chronic Kidney Disease312 Dialysis in the Treatment of Kidney Failure313 Transplantation in the Treatment of Renal Failure314 Glomerular Diseases315 Polycystic Kidney Disease and Other Inherited Disorders of Tubule Growth and Development316 Tubulointerstitial Diseases of the Kidney317 Vascular Injury to the Kidney318 Nephrolithiasis319 Urinary Tract Obstruction320 Interventional NephrologyPART 10 Disorders of the Gastrointestinal SystemSECTION 1 Disorders of the Alimentary Tract321 Approach to the Patient with Gastrointestinal Disease322 Gastrointestinal Endoscopy323 Diseases of the Esophagus324 Peptic Ulcer Disease and Related Disorders325 Disorders of Absorption326 Inflammatory Bowel Disease327 Irritable Bowel Syndrome328 Diverticular Disease and Common Anorectal Disorders329 Mesenteric Vascular Insufficiency330 Acute Intestinal Obstruction331 Acute Appendicitis and PeritonitisSECTION 2 Nutrition332 Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Assessment333 Vitamin and Trace Mineral Deficiency and Excess334 Malnutrition and Nutritional Assessment335 Enteral and Parenteral NutritionSECTION 3 Liver and Biliary Tract Disease336 Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease337 Evaluation of Liver Function338 The Hyperbilirubinemias339 Acute Viral Hepatitis340 Toxic and Drug-Induced Hepatitis341 Chronic Hepatitis342 Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease343 Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis344 Cirrhosis and Its Complications345 Liver Transplantation346 Diseases of the Gallbladder and Bile DuctsSECTION 4 Disorders of the Pancreas347 Approach to the Patient with Pancreatic Disease348 Acute and Chronic PancreatitisPART 11 Immune-Mediated, Inflammatory, and Rheumatologic DisordersSECTION 1 The Immune System in Health and Disease349 Introduction to the Immune System350 Mechanisms of Regulation and Dysregulation of the Immune System351 Primary Immune Deficiency DiseasesSECTION 2 Disorders of Immune-Mediated Injury352 Urticaria, Angioedema, and Allergic Rhinitis353 Anaphylaxis354 Mastocytosis355 Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases356 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus357 Antiphospholipid Syndrome358 Rheumatoid Arthritis359 Acute Rheumatic Fever360 Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma) and Related Disorders361 Sj?gren’s Syndrome362 Spondyloarthritis363 The Vasculitis Syndromes364 Behçet Syndrome365 Inflammatory Myopathies366 Relapsing Polychondritis367 Sarcoidosis368 IgG4-Related Disease369 Familial Mediterranean Fever and Other Hereditary Autoinflammatory DiseasesSECTION 3 Disorders of the Joints and Adjacent Tissues370 Approach to Articular and Musculoskeletal Disorders371 Osteoarthritis372 Gout and Other Crystal-Associated Arthropathies373 Fibromyalgia374 Arthritis Associated with Systemic Disease, and Other Arthritides375 Periarticular Disorders of the ExtremitiesPART 12 Endocrinology and MetabolismSECTION 1 Endocrinology376 Approach to the Patient with Endocrine Disorders377 Mechanisms of Hormone Action378 Physiology of Anterior Pituitary Hormones379 Hypopituitarism380 Pituitary Tumor Syndromes381 Disorders of the Neurohypophysis382 Thyroid Gland Physiology and Testing383 Hypothyroidism384 Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis385 Thyroid Nodular Disease and Thyroid Cancer386 Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex387 Pheochromocytoma388 Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes389 Autoimmune Polyendocrine SyndromesSECTION 2 Sex- and Gender-Based Medicine390 Sex Development391 Disorders of the Testes and Male Reproductive System392 Disorders of the Female Reproductive System393 Menstrual Disorders and Pelvic Pain394 Hirsutism395 Menopause and Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy396 Infertility and Contraception397 Sexual Dysfunction398 Women’s Health399 Men’s Health400 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) HealthSECTION 3 Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Syndrome401 Pathobiology of Obesity402 Evaluation and Management of Obesity403 Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis, Classification, and Pathophysiology404 Diabetes Mellitus: Management and Therapies405 Diabetes Mellitus: Complications406 Hypoglycemia407 Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism408 The Metabolic SyndromeSECTION 4 Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism409 Bone and Mineral Metabolism in Health and Disease410 Disorders of the Parathyroid Gland and Calcium Homeostasis411 Osteoporosis412 Paget’s Disease and Other Dysplasias of BoneSECTION 5 Disorders of Intermediary Metabolism413 Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue414 Hemochromatosis415 Wilson’s Disease416 The Porphyrias417 Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism418 Lysosomal Storage Diseases419 Glycogen Storage Diseases and Other Inherited Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism420 Inherited Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism in Adults421 Inherited Defects of Membrane TransportPART 13 Neurologic DisordersSECTION 1 Diagnosis of Neurologic Disorders422 Approach to the Patient with Neurologic Disease423 Neuroimaging in Neurologic Disorders424 Pathobiology of Neurologic DiseasesSECTION 2 Diseases of the Central Nervous System425 Seizures and Epilepsy426 Introduction to Cerebrovascular Diseases427 Ischemic Stroke428 Intracranial Hemorrhage429 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage430 Migraine and Other Primary Headache Disorders431 Alzheimer’s Disease432 Frontotemporal Dementia433 Vascular Dementia434 Dementia with Lewy Bodies435 Parkinson’s Disease436 Tremor, Chorea, and Other Movement Disorders437 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Diseases438 Prion Diseases439 Ataxic Disorders440 Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System441 Trigeminal Neuralgia, Bell’s Palsy, and Other Cranial Nerve Disorders442 Diseases of the Spinal Cord443 Concussion and Other Traumatic Brain Injuries444 Multiple Sclerosis445 Neuromyelitis OpticaSECTION 3 Nerve and Muscle Disorders446 Peripheral Neuropathy447 Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Other Immune-Mediated Neuropathies448 Myasthenia Gravis and Other Diseases of the Neuromuscular Junction449 Muscular Dystrophies and Other Muscle DiseasesSECTION 4 Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome450 Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue SyndromeSECTION 5 Psychiatric and Addiction Disorders451 Biology of Psychiatric Disorders452 Psychiatric Disorders453 Alcohol and Alcohol Use Disorders454 Nicotine Addiction455 Marijuana and Marijuana Use Disorders456 Opioid-Related Disorders457 Cocaine, Other Psychostimulants, and HallucinogensPART 14 Poisoning, Drug Overdose, and Envenomation458 Heavy Metal Poisoning459 Poisoning and Drug Overdose460 Disorders Caused by Venomous Snakebites and Marine Animal Exposures461 Ectoparasite Infestations and Arthropod InjuriesPART 15 Disorders Associated with Environmental Exposures462 Altitude Illness463 Hyperbaric and Diving Medicine464 Hypothermia and Peripheral Cold Injuries465 Heat-Related IllnessesPART 16 Genes, the Environment, and Disease466 Principles of Human Genetics467 The Practice of Genetics in Clinical Medicine468 Mitochondrial DNA and Heritable Traits and Diseases469 Telomere Disease470 Gene- and Cell-Based Therapy in Clinical Medicine471 The Human MicrobiomePART 17 Global Medicine472 Global Issues in Medicine473 Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases474 Primary Care and Global Health475 Health Effects of Climate ChangePART 18 Aging476 Biology of Aging477 Caring for the Geriatric PatientPART 19 Consultative Medicine478 Approach to Medical Consultation479 Medical Disorders During Pregnancy480 Medical Evaluation of the Surgical PatientPART 20 Frontiers481 Behavioral Economics and Health482 Complementary and Integrative Therapies and Practices483 The Role of Epigenetics in Disease and Treatment484 Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine485 The Role of Circadian Biology in Health and Disease486 Network Medicine: Systems Biology in Health and Disease487 Emerging Neurotherapeutic Technologies488 Machine Learning and Augmented Intelligence in Clinical Medicine489 Metabolomics490 Circulating Nucleic Acids as Liquid Biopsies and Noninvasive Disease Biomarkers491 Protein Folding Disorders492 Novel Approaches to Diseases of Unknown EtiologyIndex
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