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Contents: فهرست فصول
Section 1 Curriculum DevelopmentChapter 1 New horizons in medical educationSummaryReferencesChapter 2 Curriculum planning and developmentIntroductionWhat is a curriculum?SummaryReferencesChapter 3 The undergraduate curriculumIntroductionForces shaping the curriculumCritical components of the undergraduate medical education programme as they relate to the continuum of medical educationSummaryReferencesChapter 4 Postgraduate medical educationIntroductionFunctions of PGME and postgraduate trainees in a healthcare systemTransitions in PGMEModels of PGMETeaching, learning and assessment in PGMEExternal assessment in PGME: summative, certificationPGME quality, accreditation and CQIControversies in PGMEThe future of PGMESummaryReferencesChapter 5 Continuing professional developmentBackgroundHow clinicians learnAssessment and evaluationSummaryReferencesChapter 6 The hidden curriculumHistorical contextDefinitions and metaphorsApplications: exploring/assessing the hidden curriculumStudent mistreatment: a case study in applying the HC lensSummaryReferencesSection 2 Learning SituationsChapter 7 LecturesLectures in medical teachingPros and cons of lectures as a primary learning eventLearning in a lecture environmentOrganizing a lectureTeaching materialsActive learning in the lecture hallThe flipped classroomSummaryReferencesChapter 8 Learning in small groupsWhat is a small group?When to use small groups?How to effectively conduct a small-group teaching sessionEvaluating (assessing) the small-group sessionEvaluation of small-group teaching and participationSummaryFurther informationChapter 9 Learning with patientsIntroductionThe ‘learning triad’Educational strategies for bedside teachingStrategies for inpatientsStrategies for outpatientsEducational strategies applicable to all clinical settingsHospital ward opportunities – models for managing learning in the wardAmbulatory care opportunitiesAssessment of bedside learningStaff developmentSummaryReferencesChapter 10 Learning in the communityIntroductionWhat is community-based medical education?Goals of CBMEPractical principles for successful CBMESummaryReferencesFurther readingChapter 11 Learning in rural and remote locationsIntroductionBefore the learner arrivesThe first dayDuring the rotationAssessment and wrap-upTroubled and troubling learnersSummaryAcknowledgementsReferencesChapter 12 Learning in longitudinal integrated clerkshipsIntroductionDefinitionHistoryRationaleModel typesStrengths of LICsChallenges of LICsFuture visionsSummaryReferencesChapter 13 Learning in a simulated environmentIntroductionBackgroundSimulation as designSimulated patientsSimulated patient methodology and trends in medical educationFundamental concepts in simulated patient methodologyDiscourses of clinical competenceScope of SP practiceHybrid simulationsPatients’ voicesQualities of simulated patientsSupporting simulated patients in role portrayal and feedbackSimulation technologyHybrid simulatorsCurrent and future trendsSimulation in the twenty-first centurySummaryReferencesFurther reading and resourcesChapter 14 Distance educationBefore you begin …Introduction to the courseWhat is distance learning?Technology and distance learningFeedbackThe structure of a distance learning textFeedbackProviding students with feedback on learningBlending different elements of the courseManaging clinical attachments by distance learningFeedbackThe student’s learning experienceManaging distance learningDevelopment of distance learning courses (Table 14.11)Quality assurance in distance learningFeedbackConclusionReferencesFurther readingSection 3 Educational Strategies and TechnologiesChapter 15 Outcome-based educationA move from process to productThe trend towards OBEWhy the move to OBE?Implementation of OBEImplementing OBEMyths about OBESummaryReferencesChapter 16 Integrated learningIntroductionSome definitionsRationale for integrated learningStrategies for integrated learningBarriers to integrated learningIntegrated student assessmentSummaryReferencesChapter 17 Interprofessional educationDefinitionsHistoryThe rationale for IPECurriculum developmentLearning activitiesAssessmentPost-qualificationImpact and effectiveness of IPEFaculty development for IPEOvercoming challengesSummaryReferencesChapter 18 Problem-based learningPerspectives in problem-based learningCreating PBL courses: a systems perspectiveWriting PBL casesRunning PBL small groupsFaculty as tutorEvaluating PBL session outcomesPBL controversiesOutcomes of PBL coursesReasons to consider using a PBL approachGeneral disadvantages of small-group learningSpecific disadvantages of PBL as a learning formatIssues with PBL as an educational methodologyIssues with studentsIssues with tutorsActive learning beyond the PBL format – expanding the educator toolboxSummaryReferenceFurther readingChapter 19 Team-based learningWhat is team-based learning?How does TBL work?What does a TBL session look like?What are the ingredients for a successful TBL module?Why does TBL work?What can go wrong with TBL?Is TBL worth the effort?SummaryReferencesOnline resourcesChapter 20 Using digital technologiesIntroductionThe digital technology repertoireUsing technology in medical educationWhy use digital technology?Technology and instructional designMobile technologiesPreparing for e-healthHidden curriculum and digital technologiesDigital professionalismThe role of the medical e-teacherSummaryReferencesFurther readingChapter 21 Instructional designIntroductionThe ADDIE modelThe universe of ID modelsExamples of ID modelsSummaryReferencesSection 4 Curriculum ThemesChapter 22 Basic sciences and curriculum outcomesIntroductionThe changing medical curriculumAuthentic learning in basic science coursesThe active learning environmentUse of reflective practice, critical thinking and clinical reasoningInnovations in teaching basic sciencesBasic science integration throughout the curriculumNontraditional discipline-independent skillsLearning basic science outside curricular structureSummaryReferencesChapter 23 Social and behavioural sciences in medical school curriculaIntroductionWhy are the social and behavioural sciences important in medicine?What topics should be included in the curriculum?Where and when should SBS be presented in the curriculum?Who should do the teaching design and delivery?How can SBS be learnt, taught and assessed?AssessmentHow do we implement an SBS curriculum?SummaryReferencesFurther readingChapter 24 Clinical communicationIntroductionUsing role playThe wider contextProfessionalismAssessmentConclusionReferencesRelevant websitesTeaching resources available onlineSupport for the international doctorChapter 25 Ethics and attitudesIntroductionCritical challengesUndergraduate educationAssessment of ethical and professional attitudesThe special nature of attitudesConsistent expectationsSummary: effecting culture shiftReferencesChapter 26 ProfessionalismIntroductionDefining professionalismSetting expectation: agreeing a framework for professionalismDeveloping a culture of professionalism: role modelling and the hidden curriculumDigital professionalismEducating faculty on social mediaAssessing professionalismSummaryReferencesChapter 27 Evidence-based medicineIntroductionApproaches to teaching EBMTiming of EBMEBM instructorsLearning resources for EBMEBM assessmentFuture directions for EBM teachingSummaryReferencesChapter 28 Patient safety and quality of careIntroductionIntroduction to patient safety, the tragedy of preventable harmNew competencies and patient safetyReporting and learning from adverse events and close callsEstablishing the just cultureTeamwork skills and a deeper understanding of human factorsIntroduction to health care qualityTeaching healthcare quality and patient safetyStrategies for teaching quality and safetyAssessment and evaluationChallenges that are somewhat unique to establishing a patient safety and healthcare quality educational programmeSummaryReferencesChapter 29 Medical humanitiesIntroductionWhat are the medical humanities?How do the medical humanities contribute to medical education?What educational approaches are useful in medical humanities?Curriculum structureContent and deliveryWhat are some practical considerations and challenges?SummaryAcknowledgementReferencesChapter 30 Integrative medicine in the training of physiciansIntroductionIntegrative medicine in undergraduate medical educationClerkshipsIntegrative medicine in graduate medical educationSummaryReferencesChapter 31 Global awarenessIntroductionThe rationale for global awarenessUnderstanding the global health agenda for medical educationIntegrating activities and resources for global awarenessGlobal health training starts by understanding local health issuesAssessmentPreparing students for international experiences and electivesFaculty development for global awarenessEthical issues and international electivesSummaryReferencesChapter 32 Medical education in an era of ubiquitous informationUbiquitous informationData, information, knowledgeHealthcare in the digital age (and biomedical knowledge in the cloud)The digital native learnerThree key competencies at a time of ubiquitous information and educational strategies to support the digital learnerDemonstration and assessment of metacognitionInformation retrieval and the ability to form an appropriate questionEvaluating and weighing evidence to make decisions; recognizing patients and interprofessional colleagues as additional sources of informationSummaryReferencesSection 5 AssessmentChapter 33 Concepts in assessment including standard settingMeasurement theoriesTypes of assessmentQualities of a good assessmentScore interpretationScore equivalenceStandardsBlueprintsSelf-assessmentObjective versus subjective assessmentsAll assessment requires judgementSummaryReferencesChapter 34 Written assessmentsIntroductionQuestion formatQuality control of itemsResponse formatsStimulus formatsSummaryReferencesFurther readingChapter 35 Performance and workplace assessmentIntroductionChoosing the right assessmentAssessments of clinical competenceAssessing performance in the workplaceOutstanding issues in performance assessmentSummaryReferencesChapter 36 Portfolios, projects and thesesIntroductionThe objectives and contents of portfoliosElectronic portfoliosSuccess factors for portfoliosPortfolio assessmentThesis and project circleSummaryReferencesChapter 37 Feedback, reflection and coachingIntroductionCompetency-based educationDescription of the curriculum modelFeedbackReflectionCoachingSummaryReferencesChapter 38 The assessment of attitudes and professionalismWhy assess attitudes and professionalism? Setting the boundariesWhat do we mean by professionalism? Agreeing the definitionWhen should professionalism be assessed?How should professionalism be assessed?Tools across the continuum – a portfolio of professionalismSummaryReferencesChapter 39 Programmatic assessmentIntroductionThe traditional approachProgrammatic assessmentAn exampleImplementing programmatic assessmentSummaryReferencesSection 6 StaffChapter 40 Staff developmentIntroductionCommon practices and challengesDesigning a staff development programmeSummaryReferencesChapter 41 Academic standards and scholarshipIntroductionDouble standard: research, patient care and teachingProfessionalizing teachingBroadening the definition of scholarshipCriteria for scholarship in teaching and educationRecognizing and evaluating a scholarly approach to teaching and educational scholarshipIncreasing support for a scholarly approach to teaching and educational scholarshipLeadership: promoting the scholarship of teachingAdaptive action: leadership for scholarshipSummaryReferencesSection 7 StudentsChapter 42 Student selectionIntroductionWhy select?The limits of selectionWhich are the canonical traits in selection?Methods and process of selectionThe costs of selectionRoutine monitoring of selectionWidening accessStudying selection and learning from researchSummaryReferencesChapter 43 Student supportSupporting student learningSupporting student mental and physical wellbeingProviding other support servicesCreating a comprehensive student services systemSummaryReferencesChapter 44 Student engagement in learningExpertiseMasteryAddressing our expert blind spot and developing student masteryContextual learning and thinkingStrategies for developing medical students’ contextual thinkingStudent engagement in the management of the learning environmentSummaryReferencesChapter 45 Peer-assisted learningIntroductionDefining PALPAL and collaborative learningTheoretical basis for PALEvidence for PALPotential disadvantages and concerns about PALComponents and choices in PALApplications and examples of PAL in healthcare educationConclusionsSummaryReferencesSection 8 Medical SchoolChapter 46 Understanding medical school leadershipWhere and how decisions are influenced in complex organizationsRelationships with the medical school departmentsRelationships with the clinical learning sitesRelationship with the graduate medical education programmesRelationship with the research institutes and research centresRelationships with the parent university administrationSummaryReferencesChapter 47 Medical education leadershipIntroductionThe ‘leadership triad’Our current understanding of medical education leadershipLeadership theory and practicePersonal qualities and attributesLeadership is context dependentLeading groups and teamsA systems perspectiveSummaryReferencesAdditional readingChapter 48 The medical teacher and social accountabilityIntroductionThe concept of social accountability of medical schoolsMedical teachers and social accountabilityMedical teachers comprehensive roles in socially accountable medical schoolsPractical examples of medical teacher social accountabilityResearchSummaryReferencesFurther readingChapter 49 The educational environmentIntroductionWhat is the educational environment?The person levelThe group levelThe organization levelThe community and society levelsHow is the educational environment measured?Teaching with the educational environment in mindSummaryReferencesChapter 50 Medical education researchQuantitative and qualitative researchMixed-methods researchReflectionBuilding capacityFundingSummaryReferencesIndex