Hailed as ‘superb’, ‘thorough’, and ‘contemporary’, this is the essential orthodontics text for all staff involved in orthodontic treatment, whether they are dental students, orthodontic therapists, postgraduate students at the beginning of their career, or more experienced clinicians wantingan evidence-based, concise update on the foundations of contemporary orthodontic care.With over 700 illustrations and plenty of case studies, An Introduction to Orthodontics, Fifth Edition is a user-friendly introduction to the subject. Continuing its well-deserved reputation, it is the perfect starting point for learning key concepts and the practical aspects of orthodontics.The new fifth edition has been completely updated to reflect contemporary practice, including a new chapter dedicated to hypodontia and orthodontics, and a new chapter on the fastest growing area in orthodontics, clear aligners.Readers will find further reading and references at the end of each chapter, including references to appropriate Cochrane Reviews to aid revision and support clinical practice. Learning objectives, key points boxes, and instructive artwork make this an essential text for busy readers who needfocused and practical learning.
Contents: فهرست فصول
CoverHalftitleTitleCopyrightPreface for fifth editionOnline ResourcesBrief contentsDetailed contents1 The rationale for orthodontic treatment (S. K. Barber)1.1 Orthodontics1.2 Malocclusion1.3 Rationale for orthodontic treatment1.4 Potential benefits to dental health1.5 Potential benefits for oral health-related quality of life1.6 Potential risks of orthodontic treatment1.7 Discussing orthodontic treatment need2 The aetiology and classification of malocclusion (L. Mitchell)2.1 The aetiology of malocclusion2.2 Classifying malocclusion2.3 Commonly used classifications and indices2.4 Andrews’ six keys3 Management of the developing dentition (L. Mitchell)3.1 Normal dental development3.2 Abnormalities of eruption and exfoliation3.3 Mixed dentition problems3.4 Planned extraction of deciduous teeth3.5 What to refer and when4 Craniofacial growth and the cellular basis of tooth movement (F. R. Jenkins)4.1 Introduction4.2 Early craniofacial development4.3 Mechanisms of bone formation and growth4.4 Control of craniofacial growth4.5 Postnatal craniofacial growth4.6 Growth rotations4.7 Growth of the soft tissues4.8 Growth prediction4.9 The cellular basis of tooth movement4.10 Cellular events associated with excess force4.11 Cellular events during root resorption4.12 Summary5 Orthodontic assessment (S. J. Littlewood)5.1 Introduction to orthodontic assessment5.2 Taking an orthodontic history5.3 Clinical examination in three dimensions5.4 Extra-oral examination5.5 Intra-oral examination5.6 Diagnostic records5.7 Forming a problem list5.8 Case study: example case to demonstrate orthodontic assessment6 Cephalometrics (S. K. Barber)6.1 The cephalostat6.2 Indications for cephalometric evaluation6.3 Evaluating a cephalometric radiograph6.4 Cephalometric analysis: general points6.5 Commonly used cephalometric points and reference lines6.6 Anteroposterior skeletal pattern6.7 Vertical skeletal pattern6.8 Incisor position6.9 Soft tissue analysis6.10 Assessing growth and treatment changes6.11 Cephalometric errors6.12 3D cephalometric analysis7 Treatment planning (S. J. Littlewood)7.1 Introduction7.2 General objectives of orthodontic treatment7.3 Forming an orthodontic problem list7.4 Aims of orthodontic treatment7.5 Skeletal problems and treatment planning7.6 Basic principles in orthodontic treatment planning7.7 Space analysis7.8 Valid consent and the orthodontic treatment plan7.9 Conclusions7.10 Case study: example case to demonstrate treatment planning8 Class I (Benjamin R. K. Lewis)8.1 Aetiology8.2 Crowding8.3 Spacing8.4 Early loss of first permanent molars8.5 Displaced teeth8.6 Vertical discrepancies8.7 Transverse discrepancies8.8 Bimaxillary proclination8.9 Trauma9 Class II division 1 (S. J. Littlewood)9.1 Aetiology9.2 Objectives of treating Class II division 1 malocclusions9.3 Treatment planning for Class II division 1 malocclusions10 Class II division 2 (S. K. Barber)10.1 Aetiology10.2 Common features of Class II division 2 malocclusion10.3 Aims of treatment10.4 Treatment methods11 Class III (Benjamin R. K. Lewis)11.1 Aetiology11.2 Occlusal features11.3 Treatment planning in Class III malocclusions11.4 Treatment options12 Anterior open bite and posterior open bite (Benjamin R. K. Lewis)12.1 Definitions12.2 Aetiology of anterior open bite12.3 Management of anterior open bite12.4 Posterior open bite13 Crossbites (Benjamin R. K. Lewis)13.1 Definitions13.2 Aetiology13.3 Types of crossbite13.4 Management14 Canines (L. Mitchell)14.1 Facts and figures14.2 Normal development14.3 Aetiology of maxillary canine displacement14.4 Interception of displaced canines14.5 Assessing maxillary canine position14.6 Management of buccal displacement14.7 Management of palatal displacement14.8 Resorption14.9 Transposition15 Anchorage planning (Benjamin R. K. Lewis)15.1 Introduction15.2 Assessing anchorage requirements15.3 Classification of anchorage15.4 Intra-oral anchorage15.5 Extra-oral anchorage15.6 Monitoring anchorage during treatment15.7 Common problems with anchorage15.8 Summary16 Retention (S. J. Littlewood)16.1 Introduction16.2 Definition of relapse and post-treatment changes16.3 Aetiology of post-treatment changes16.4 How common are post-treatment changes?16.5 Consent and the responsibilities of retention16.6 Retainers16.7 Adjunctive techniques used to reduce post-treatment changes16.8 Conclusions about retention17 Removable appliances (L. Mitchell)17.1 Mode of action of removable appliances17.2 Designing removable appliances17.3 Active components17.4 Retaining the appliance17.5 Baseplate17.6 Commonly used removable appliances17.7 Fitting a removable appliance17.8 Monitoring progress17.9 Appliance repairs18 Fixed appliances (Benjamin R. K. Lewis)18.1 Principles of fixed appliances18.2 Indications for the use of fixed appliances18.3 Components of fixed appliances18.4 Treatment planning for fixed appliances18.5 Practical procedures18.6 Fixed appliance systems18.7 Demineralization and fixed appliances18.8 Starting with fixed appliances19 Functional appliances (S. J. Littlewood)19.1 Definition19.2 History19.3 Overview19.4 Case study: functional appliance19.5 Timing of treatment19.6 Types of malocclusion treated with functional appliances19.7 Types of functional appliance19.8 Clinical management of functional appliances19.9 How functional appliances work19.10 How successful are functional appliances?20 Adult orthodontics (S. J. Littlewood)20.1 Introduction20.2 Comprehensive, adjunctive, or limited treatment orthodontics20.3 Specific challenges in adult orthodontic treatment20.4 Orthodontics and periodontal disease20.5 Orthodontic treatment as an adjunct to restorative work20.6 Aesthetic orthodontic appliances20.7 Obstructive sleep apnoea and mandibular advancement splints21 Orthodontic aligners (S. K. Barber)21.1 Definition of orthodontic aligners21.2 History of aligners21.3 Tooth movement with aligners21.4 Clinical stages in aligner treatment21.5 Digital aligner construction21.6 Uses for aligners21.7 Advantages and limitations of orthodontic aligners22 Orthodontics and orthognathic surgery (S. J. Littlewood)22.1 Introduction22.2 Indications for treatment22.3 Objectives of combined orthodontics and orthognathic surgery22.4 The importance of the soft tissues22.5 Diagnosis and treatment plan22.6 Planning22.7 Common surgical procedures22.8 Sequence of treatment22.9 Retention and relapse22.10 3D developments in orthognathic surgery: planning, simulation, and guided surgery23 Hypodontia and orthodontics (S. K. Barber)23.1 Definition23.2 Aetiology23.3 Features of hypodontia23.4 Impact of hypodontia23.5 Treatment in the primary dentition23.6 Treatment in the mixed dentition23.7 Treatment in the permanent dentition24 Cleft lip and palate and other craniofacial anomalies (L. Mitchell)24.1 Prevalence24.2 Aetiology24.3 Classification24.4 Problems in management24.5 Coordination of care24.6 Management24.7 Audit of cleft palate care24.8 Other craniofacial anomalies25 Orthodontic first aid (L. Mitchell)25.1 Fixed appliance25.2 Removable appliance25.3 Functional appliance25.4 Headgear25.5 MiscellaneousDefinitionsOrthodontic assessment formIndex
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